An electric vehicle battery (EVB) which is also called a traction battery, is a type of battery that can be recharged and used to power the electric motor (as a means of propulsion) of a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or hybrid electric vehicle. (HEV).
EV batteries are usually rechargeable(secondary) batteries and are typically lithium-ion (Li-ion) bases; they are specifically designed for high electric charge or energy capacity.
Since the late 1990s, there has been the development of lithium-ion battery technology, this is due to the demand for portable electronics, laptops, computer mobile phones, and power tools.
Electric vehicle (EV) batteries are different from SLI (starting, lighting, and ignition) batteries as they are designed to give power over sustained periods of time and are deep-recycle batteries.
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As EV batteries continue to grow as a power source for transportation, its sector is experiencing rapid growth, making the manufacturers develop more innovative designs and material solutions that offer extended autonomy and flexibility for EV batteries.
Batteries for electric vehicles are characterized by their relatively high power-to-weight ratio, specific energy, and energy density: smaller, lighter batteries are desirable because they reduce the weight of the vehicle and therefore improve its performance.
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The most common battery type in modern electric vehicles is lithium-ion and lithium-polymer, because of their high energy density compared to their weight.
Here are the heavy names and the top 12 companies manufacturing EV batteries:
#1 CONTEMPORARY AMPEREX TECHNOLOGY CO. LIMITED (CATL)
This is a Chinese-based technology company (a spinoff of ATL) and the top EV battery manufacturer in the world was founded in 2011. It has Robin Zeng, a 52-year-old man as its chairman. The company is headquartered in Ningde, Fujian China with other offices in Germany, the United States, Yibin, Sichuan, Xining, Liyang, and Shanghai which is still under construction.
CATL specializes in the manufacturing of lithium-ion phosphate(LFP) batteries for electric vehicles and supplies to Tesla, Peugeot, Hyundai, Honda, BMW, Toyota, Volkswagen, Volvo, Nio, Daimler’s Mercedes-Benz, Stellantis, Dongfeng Motor Corp, and SAIC Motor Corp.
It was the world’s biggest electric car batteries maker, for the sixth year running, in 2022. CATL occupied a 32.6% share of the world’s auto lithium-ion battery market in 2021 and 3,400% growth from 2016-to 2020.
Recently, CATL acquired shares from Jinchuan Group International Resources and Vancouver, a Canada-based millennia lithium company to secure supplies of key battery materials. On the 18th of January 2022, CATL had the first online launch of its new swap brand battery solution EVOGO and an app.
#2 LG ENERGY SOLUTION (LGES)
LGES is a South Korean-based energy major, headquartered in Seoul, South Korea and currently has battery production sites in the United States, China, Poland, Indonesia and South Korea.
South Korea’s second-largest listed firm recently. LGES was second in terms of installed capacity worldwide. With the IPO proceeds, LG Energy plans to increase its production capacity in the global markets.
Spun out of LG Chem in December 2020, LG Energy has more than 30,000 employees and develops lithium-ion batteries for EVs, mobility, drones, ships, IT applications, and energy storage systems. After the listing, its parent company LG Chem will hold an 81.8% stake in LG Energy.
In order to take on its global competitors, the firm formed additional strategic partnerships with carmakers in the U.S., Europe, and China. LG Energy has approximately 22% of the global EV battery market, with customers including Tesla, General Motors, Jaguar, Hyundai Motor Co, Audi, Porsche, Groupe Renault, Stellantis, Volvo, and Volkswagen.
In June last year, the Seoul-based firm suspended its IPO process on the heels of a series of recalls from General Motors’ Chevrolet Bolt electric vehicles due to possible battery cell defects that could increase fire risk but in July, the company declared its plan is to invest $5.2 billion in battery materials by 2025.
LG Energy announced earlier this week its plan to build a $2.6 billion EV battery plant in the U.S with General Motors. South Korean battery giant LG Energy Solution Ltd (LGES) made known its plans to invest $1.5 billion to set up a joint venture with Stellantis NV in Canada; LGES owns 51% of the joint venture, tentatively named “LGES-STLA JV” and Stellantis owns 49%.
In October 2021, LGES and Stellantis NV struck an electric vehicle (EV) battery production joint venture, targeting to start production by the first quarter of 2024 and aiming to have an annual production capacity of 40-gigawatt hours of batteries.
And in a separate regulatory filing, LGES said it plans to acquire a stake worth $542 million in ES America to respond to demand from EV startups in the United States.
LGES is considering building a factory in Arizona to meet the demand for batteries in the United States, but the plant is expected to primarily produce cylindrical battery cells.
LGES has a factory in Lansing Michigan worth $2.5 billion and other two battery joint ventures with General Motors Co in Ohio and Tennessee manufacturing 70GWh of batteries which could power over 1 million Es by 2024.
LG Energy Solution (LGES) plans to spend $2.1 billion with General Motors to build two U.S. electric vehicle (EV) battery plants. LGES and GM are expected to fund the project equally via Ultium Cells, their U.S.-based battery joint venture, for what will be their third joint battery plant in the United States
Panasonic is a major Japanese multinational conglomerate company, headquartered in Kadoma, Osaka. The multinational is a worldwide leader in the development of diverse electronics technologies and solutions for consumers in consumer electronics including rechargeable batteries, automotive and avionic systems, industrial systems as well as home renovation and construction.
It supplies battery cells for hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and full-electric vehicles, and is a leading player in the market.
Panasonic’s advanced Lithium-ion battery technology is designed to provide improved energy density, lower costs, easier charge, and improved driving range, all intended to reduce the vehicle’s environmental impact.
In 2020, Panasonic and Toyota have formed the second EV battery joint venture named Prime Planet Energy & Solutions (PPES) which would focus on the development and manufacturing of Li-ion batteries and a solid-state battery.
The Japanese powerhouse has in pipeline plans to produce a new lithium-ion battery for Tesla from as early as 2023. It likewise looks to invest about 80 billion yen ($705 million) in production facilities in Japan.
Panasonic supplies EV batteries to Tesla, and Toyota but is the sole maker of the more advanced Tesla battery, ensuring it remains a key supplier to the U.S. company. Panasonic ranked third with an installed capacity of 36.1 GWh and a 14% market share.
In October 2021, Panasonic also disclosed the 4680 formats (46 millimeters wide and 80 millimeters tall) battery. It plans to produce 10 gigawatt-hours of the 4680 batteries at its Wakayama plant, a year, equivalent to around 150,000 vehicles.
#4 SAMSUNG SDI:
Samsung SDI is a battery and electronic materials manufacturer; it is a full-service supplier of lithium-ion cells, battery modules, and battery packs for all-electric vehicles as well as all types of hybrid vehicles.
With its know-how and experience in the battery business for mobile devices, Samsung SDI is leading the charge to open a new era of eco-friendly electric vehicles by developing batteries with high efficiency and high energy density.
Samsung SDI exhibited its high energy density battery cell with the 20-minute fast charging capability that extends EV driving range to six hundred kilometers, as well as an expandable battery module with 10% fewer parts and weight, at Detroit Motor Show 2017.
Batteries are the enabler for electromobility. The vision of Samsung SDI is to support the growth of electrified vehicles by using unique and outstanding technologies.
At their main site at Premstaetten near Graz, battery packs for all kinds of electromobility are developed and produced. The portfolio includes lithium-ion battery packs for 48V micro-hybrid vehicles, lithium-ion battery packs for plug-in-hybrid (PHEV) vehicles, as well as lithium-ion battery packs for battery-electric vehicles (BEV).
There’s quite a battle between Chinese and South Korean firms for the hegemony in the sector with BYD rising in the list, second in China. This is a Chinese–based company that was founded in 1995.
It is focused on lithium iron phosphate (LFP) battery production and introduced a new blade technology which makes the application reasonable in mid-to long-range term electric vehicles. Apparently, BYD was the fourth largest EV battery producer in 2021. It had a capacity of 26.3 GWh or 8.8 percent market share in 2021.
In 2020, BYD officially launched the Revolutionary Blade battery, using LFP technology. LFP batteries have a lower energy density than most other lithium-ion cells but are cheaper, have a longer shelf-life, are less prone to overheating, and don’t use cobalt or nickel.
BYD supplies to Ford, Nio, and Xiaomi Auto but still negotiating a deal with Tesla, and Volkswagen.
#6 SK ON
SK ON is an offshoot of SK Innovation, which focus on developing LFP batteries for electric vehicles. It is headquartered in Seoul South Korea and has Jee Dong-Seob as the co-CEO.
The company supplies EV batteries to Daimler, Ford, Hyundai, Volkswagen, and Kai.
SK On makes prismatic battery packs for electric vehicles but unlike its competitors such as LG Energy Solution (cylindrical/pouch), Samsung SDI (cylindrical/prismatic), and Panasonic (cylindrical/prismatic), SK On only produced pouch battery packs.
This is a strategic response to the recent global auto industry trend of adopting prismatic battery packs like Volkswagen Group is doing. The company has completed a survey on prismatic pre-and post-process equipment estimates and line design for domestic battery process equipment manufacturers.
SK On plans to eventuate its commercialization, such as mass production, after establishing a prismatic pilot production in 2022.
#7 CHINA AVIATION LITHIUM BATTERY (CALB):
China Aviation Lithium Battery (CALB) is a state-owned company that produces high-quality lithium iron phosphate battery cells for all kinds of lithium cells applications.
It is a leading company in designing and manufacturing batteries and power systems with advanced technology for various applications, enabling utility and industry customers to improve performance while lowering environmental impact around the world.
CALB is ranked among the top in the field of EV models, energy storage, and lithium battery exporter of China, and it entered the USA, EU, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and other markets worldwide.
The company supplies EV batteries to GAC Motors and Zhejiang Geely Holding Group Co. It offers products that have passed many authoritative quality system certifications, such as IATF16949, and obtains international certifications including CE, UL, TUV, RoHS, and so on.
#8 AUTOMATIC ENERGY SUPPLY CORP (AESC):
This is a manufacturer of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles established in 2007 as a joint venture between Nissan Motor Corporation, NEC Corporation, and Tokin Corporation; to develop and produce high-performance lithium-ion batteries for cars.
Automotive Energy Supply Corporation researches, develops, produces, and sells battery products for automotive use. The firm has Groupe Renault and Nissan as its customer.
In 2010 the Nissan Leaf electric vehicle began production, using batteries from AESC. AESC was ranked the second-largest electric vehicle battery manufacturer worldwide (after Panasonic ) in 2014, with 21% of the market, but in 2016, Nissan decided to sell its 51% stake in AESC, preferring external suppliers.
In Aug 2018, Nissan announced the sale of its electric car battery unit to the Chinese renewable group, Envision Group, while retaining a 25% stake.
The sale included AESC as well as battery manufacturing plants in the USA (Tennessee) and England (Sunderland). NEC’s 49% stake was also sold to Envision.
In April 2019 the company announced plans to open a new 20GWh capacity battery plant in Wuxi, Jiangsu, China, roughly to triple its production capacity of 7.5GWh/pa. A new EV 9 GWh Gigafactory will be built in Sunderland by Envision AESC.
In June 2021, Renault and Envision AESC certified the plan to set up a €2 billion ($2.4 billion) gigafactory in Douai Northern France, close to Renault ElectriCity which would supply Renault Group with 9 GWh of EV batteries by 2024 and 24 GWh of batteries by 2030.
The 9GWh-capacity Gigafactory, with state-of-the-art battery technology, will form part of a £1bn partnership with Nissan UK and Sunderland City Council to create an electric vehicle hub supporting next generation EV production and accelerating the transition to net-zero carbon mobility.
The company’s existing Sunderland plant has been supplying batteries to Nissan for the LEAF electric vehicle for the last nine years. The new scaled-up Gigafactory will produce batteries to power more than 100,000 EVs annually. AESC announced in 2019 the use of its battery packs for golf cars made by Yamaha Motors.
#9 GUOXUAN HIGH-TECH CO. LTD:
Guoxuan High-tech Co., Ltd. a China-based company and a subsidiary of Gotion High Tech Co. Ltd., operates in the research and development, manufacture, and sale of power lithium batteries. It produces transmission and distribution equipment.
It also specializes in power lithium-ion batteries, monolithic lithium-ion batteries and cells, and powerful lithium battery cathode material. Its products are used in new energy vehicles, storage power stations, communication base stations, scenery complementary, and mobile power.
#10 PRIME EARTH EV ENERGY:
Primearth EV Energy Co., Ltd. ( PEVE) is a Japanese-based manufacturer founded on 11th December 1996 as a joint venture between Toyota and Panasonic.
It is headquartered in Okasaki Kosai, Japan and it manufactures prismatic nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery packs for hybrid electric vehicles.
PEVE was focused on the production of products NiMH until early 2011 when the company has started mass production of Li-ion batteries. PEVE has supplied battery packs for HEVs and PHEVs mainly of Toyota, including the Toyota Prius, but also of Honda.
#11 RUIPU ENERGY:
Founded in 2017, Ruipu Energy is backed by Tsingshan Industry. Ruipu Energy is mainly engaged in the R&D, production, and sales of the cell-to-system applications of power or energy storage lithium-ion batteries for NEV power and smart electricity storage systems. The firm supplies EV batteries to Dongfeng and Yudo Auto.
Ruipu Energy will provide power lithium-ion batteries for Geely’s multi-brand models with a scale of more than 10GWh. As one of the top companies in the EV battery field, Ruipu Energy strives to become a strategic partner of global new energy vehicle companies, providing first-class products and services.
GEM and Ruipu Energy formed a strategic partnership to jointly establish an entire battery industry chain in order to realize the safe recycling, storage, and green disposal of lithium-ion batteries.
According to GGII data, with the support of SAIC-GM-Wuling, Weimar, Yundu, and other passenger car companies, Ruipu Energy’s installed capacity exceeded 100 MWh in July and September, and it entered the industry’s top 12 installed capacity.
Ruipu Energy’s layout in the field of energy storage has also begun to show results. At this stage, the company’s energy storage products have been upgraded from 50Ah to 100Ah, which is in line with the needs of the 5G era and the high-end overseas energy storage market.
Ruipu Energy’s 100Ah product has passed the IEC certification and has become another explosive product created by the company. In terms of production planning, the second-phase power and energy storage lithium-ion battery and system project of Ruipu Energy’s Wenzhou manufacturing base started in October.
Now is the best time to be an EV battery manufacturer because, in just five months of 2021, the total auto battery capacity deployed on the world’s roads was greater than all of 2018.
With many new start-ups sprouting up in countries across the globe, and the EV segment taking on the mobility market with a storm, the batteries will further rise in demand, and the market shares are set to go higher.
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